The flowing success
Water conservation is an integral part of India’s identity and cultural history. Water conservation in the form of rainwater harvesting is an ancient Indian tradition that has become more relevant in the present-day scenario. India is home to 18 per cent of the global population and 15 per cent of livestock with only 4 per cent of freshwater resources, the availability of which has been decreasing over time. The World Economic Forum, in its Global Risk Report, 2020, has recognised water as one of the top five global risks of long-term impact and NITI Aayog’s Composite Water Management Index predicts a 6 per cent gross domestic product (GDP) loss due to decreased water availability in India. Therefore, water conservation is essential not only to overcome shortages but also for climate change risk preparedness and socio-economic development. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, through his monthly radio programme Mann ki Baat, has appealed to Indians for water conservation and under his leadership, the government is undertaking several initiatives to promote water conservation activities across the country.
Vagaries of rainfall
Hydrologically, India is not endowed with water equity, both temporally and geographically. From June to September, the South-West monsoon contributes 70 per cent of total rainfall while the North-East monsoon from October to December contributes 30 per cent. But there is an enormous regional disparity as average rainfall varies from more than 2,000 mm in the Western Ghats and Sub-Himalayan areas of the North-East to less than 500 mm in western Rajasthan and the Deccan Plateau. On an average, India has 130 rainy days and more than 50 per cent of annual precipitation takes place in less than 100 hours. Groundwater use, considered a lifeline in most parts of the country, is also increasing. India’s groundwater extraction is over twice as much as the US and China put together. With the dwindling per capita water availability, over-exploitation of groundwater and inadequate storage availability, the Prime Minister’s appeal is timely for addressing this critical issue. Unless addressed now, the issue can become an impediment to our rapid socio-economic development.
The Gujarat model
Water being a state subject in India, states are empowered to enact laws for its regulation. The reason for the Prime Minister’s call for a people’s movement in water conservation can be traced back to his pioneering role in integrated water management in Gujarat as the then Chief Minister, who took priority measures to provide safe drinking water in drought-affected areas of the state. After taking over as the state’s Chief Minister in October 2001, he had introduced several developmental initiatives to promote integrated water management to meet the increasing water demand of growing economic activities. The measures included people’s participation in all water conservation and management efforts like rainwater harvesting, artificial recharge with scientific planning and monitoring, strengthening of existing canal system and building new dams like the Sardar Sarovar dam, and distribution canal network. He also focussed on educating farmers in water conservation and the creation of the Water and Sanitation Management Organisation, to plan and implement decentralised, demand-driven and community-managed water supply systems in the villages. The integrated water management approach became very successful in Gujarat. As compared to 2004, by 2017, Gujarat had a 50 per cent increase in the utilisable groundwater recharge and is continuously improving. Since 2001, agriculture production in the state has increased by 255 per cent. Today, more than 83 per cent of rural households in Gujarat have an assured tap water supply and more than 76 per cent of families are regularly paying monthly water service charges.
Breaking the silo approach
On a national level, in early 2019, PM Modi created the Ministry of Jal Shakti by bringing together all related ministries and departments under one umbrella. Demand and supply, quality and access – water, in all its manifestations, was finally taken up as a whole. This integrated approach to water management focussed on improving surface and groundwater availability; reversing the depletion of groundwater; improving water-use efficiency; improving service delivery in terms of provision of potable water to every household; addressing water quality issues and sustaining the Open-Defecation Free (ODF) status achieved through Swachh Bharat Mission.
On August 15, 2019, PM Modi launched the ambitious Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) for providing household piped drinking water supply to every rural home by 2024. The budget allocation for the mission in 2020-21 was INR 50,011 crore. In a short span of 18 months, the percentage of households with tap connections has increased to 7.30 crore (38.15 per cent). “Just 1.5 years ago, 3.5 crore out of 19 crore rural families in the country had piped drinking water connection. After the launch of Jal Jeevan Mission, about 4 crore new families have piped drinking water connections in such a short time”, said PM Modi. JJM has a holistic approach to water supply service delivery and scientifically addresses source sustainability, water supply, grey water treatment and re-use, and water works operation and maintenance. Every village prepares a one-time plan for five years called the Village Action Plan (VAP) capturing these details. Funds are dovetailed through the convergence of several rural programmes at a village level. The focus has shifted to the assured supply of potable water to every home rather than mere infrastructure creation. The global pandemic has made us realise that water is key to public health and productivity. The Prime Minister’s timely call to all citizens for action on water conservation has generated enthusiasm among all key stakeholders to add their strength for the greater good of water security for all. The momentum thus generated from the success of various government initiatives needs to be maintained for ensuring water is both available and not destroyed, as mentioned in Yajurveda (an ancient Vedic Sanskrit text): “Amirtham vaaapaha; amirthasya aantharithai (let water be ever-present and not destroyed)”.